Larynx EpiglottisHyoid Bone Thyrohyoid MembraneThyroid Cartilage Cricothyroid Ligament Sinus Frontalis Superior Nasal ConchalInferior Nasal Concha Nasal CavitySinus Sphenoidalis Alveoli Larynx Nasopharynx
Oropharynx Laryngopharynx Frontal SinusSphenoid SinusEthmoid Sinus Maxillary SinusBronchus Vertebrate Trachea Bronchioles Capillary Beds
Alveolar Duct Alveolar Sacs Pulmonary VeinPulmonary Artery
- The main arterial supply is through inferior thyroid arteries and bronchial arteries that constitute an important anastomoses around the tracheobronchial tree.
- The venous drainage comprises of inferior thyroid veins that ultimately drain into thyroid venous plexus which is located on the anterior side of the isthmus of thyroid gland.
Lymph from trachea drain into pretracheal, paratracheal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes from which it is drained ultimately into deep cervical lymph nodes.
- Parasympathetic nerve supply comprises of sensory fibres to the mucous membrane that are derived from the vagi and recurrent laryngeal nerves.
- Sympathetic nerve fibres are derived of middle cervical ganglion and innervate the muscle fibres of trachealis muscle and blood vessels along with the contribution of recurrent laryngeal nerve.
- The cilia play a vital role in the protective function of mucous membrane and are damaged because of prolonged smoking that can lead to the lung cancer.
- Congenital malformations, which are abnormalities by birth, include tracheal agenesis, stenosis and atresia which are rare however.
- Tracheal deviation can occur because of various anomalies of respiratory system including pleural effusion, pneumothorax, lungs cancer etc.