Bladder Seminal VesiclesProstate Gland Vas DeferensEpididymis Glans Penis
Corpus Cavernosum Urethral Opening ScrotumLabium MajoraLabium Minora UrethraClitoris Pubic bone Vagina Urinary Bladder
Cervix Uterus Ovary Rectum Ureter Fallopian Tube Axoneme Basal BodyNucleus Acrosome Sperm Testicle Endpiece Corona RadiataZona Pellucida Egg CytoplasmFirst Polar BodyOvum Mitochondria
Female Reproductive System consists of internal as well as external genital organs.
1. Internal Reproductive Organs : These organs reside inside the Body and can not be seen from outside. These include :
a. Vagina : It is the Female Copulatory Organ (involved in sexual intercourse). It is a canal with Fibro-Muscular walls which starts from the Cervix and leads to the outside of the Body. Its exit point is often called Vulva. It is also known as Birth Canal. It contains Semen of the Male ejaculated after sexual intercourse. During birth the Child passes through this canal.
b. Cervix : It is the lowermost, conical portion of the Cervix. It is where Vagina and Uterus meet. Cervix lies over its anterior wall. Cervix is actually an opening to the Uterus which allows passage of Sperms and Child during sexual intercourse and childbirth respectively. It is also called Neck of the Uterus.
c. Uterus : It is a main reproductive organ of the Female. It is a pear shaped organ present inside the Body. It’s hollow from inside and its walls are made up of three layers. Outer layer is a fibrous membrane (Perimetrium). It provides outer covering and protection to the Uterus. Middle Layer is muscular (Myometrium). Its muscles contract during Orgasm and Childbirth. Inner layer is a mucous layer (Endometrium). It helps keeping opposite walls separated and also implants newly formed Embryo. It is held in place by a number of ligaments (fibrous supporting bands). It is also called Womb.
d. Fallopian Tubes : A pair of tubes from the sides of the Uterus emerge and lead to the Ovaries. These are called Fallopian Tubes. They have inner wall made up of Ciliated Epithelium which pushes the Egg towards the Uterus. Egg is normally fertilized within Fallopian Tube hence embryo reaches the Uterus if fertilization occurs. They are also called Oviducts.
e. Ovaries : A pair of Ovaries lie on each side of the Uterus. An ovary is an oval shaped structure that is involved in production of Female Gamete (Egg). It is produced by a process called Ovulation (described later in menstrual cycle).
2. External Reproductive Organs : These are the genitilia visible to the naked eye. They include :
a. Mons Pubis : It is a fat filled rounded mass lying anterior to the Pubic Symphysis. It becomes covered with hair after Puberty. Labia Majora arise from this part of the Body.
c. Labia Majora : These are fat filled prominences on the sides of the Pudendal Cleft. They cover the Vagina anteriorly. They usually are covered with hair.
d. Labia Minora : These are a pair of flaps of skin between Labia Majora and Vagina. Their upper part forms Prepuce of the Clitoris. They usually have Sebaceous Glands.
e. Bartholin’s Glands : These glands open inside the walls of Vagina laterally. They usually lubricate the Vagina.
f. Clitoris : It is a sensitive sexual organ of the Female involved in sexual sensations and pleasure. It has two Crus of Clitoris, and two Bulbs of Vestibule. It also has a Body, Hood and Glans Clitoris. It resemble Male Penis to much extent.
g. Breasts : Breast although not strictly involved in Sexual Reproduction are an important part of Human female Sexual Activity. Every women has a pair of Breasts on the anterior wall of the Thorax. Most females attain sexual pleasure also by stimulation of the Breasts. They also produce milk as a nutrition for a newborn Baby. A normal Breast is round to oval in shape with deeply coloured central circular region called Areola and a pointing Nipple in centre of each Areola.
PHYSIOLOGY AND FUNCTION :
Female Reproductive/Menstrual Cycle : A normal female after puberty goes through a series of changes in her Reproductive System, repeating every 28 days (normally) known as Menstrual Cycle. It start by the formation and maturation of a follicle inside the Ovary. Follicle then ruptures and produces an Egg. Egg inside the Follicle is formed by Ovulation. Ovulation is a process in which haploid division (Meiosis) of Primary Oocyte takes places followed by the rupture of the Follicle which releases the Egg formed as a result of division. Ovulation induces the Endometrium of the Uterus to thicken and proliferate. It is controlled by the Hormones produced from the Brain, Ovary and Uterus. It makes it suitable for the Implantation of the Embryo. If fertilization takes place Endometrium remains thick under the action of hormones. If no fertilization takes place Endometrial wall is shed as hormones cease to produce. This comes out of the Uterus and Vagina as Menstrual Fluid. It contains Blood and Debris.
Sexual Intercourse (Copulation) : When a female is aroused her most Reproductive Organs swell and engorge with blood. Penis penetrates the Vagina. Massage by Penis on the walls of Vagina and specially stimulation Clitoris give female, sexual pleasure.
Continuous stimulation of Female Genitilia lead to the Climax or Orgasm which is characterised by the intense pleasurable feelings. It consists of series of rhythmic contractions of the muscles of the Body, specially near pelvis and abdomen along with walls of the Uterus and Vagina. These last for 20 seconds and followed by relaxation of the muscles of the Body.
Fertilization : Semen is poured inside the Vagina as a result of Sexual Intercourse. Sperms present inside the Semen, travel upwards in the Vagina of the female and reach the Egg (female gamete). One of the sperms penetrates the Egg and this process is called Fertilization. It usually occurs in Fallopian Tubes. It results in the formation of Zygote with normal number of Chromosomes (one half from sperm one from egg). It divides further and forms Embryo, and later Fetus. Fetus develops into a newborn Bab