Bladder Seminal VesiclesProstate Gland Vas DeferensEpididymis Glans Penis
Corpus Cavernosum Urethral Opening ScrotumLabium MajoraLabium Minora UrethraClitoris Pubic bone Vagina Urinary Bladder
Cervix Uterus Ovary Rectum Ureter Fallopian Tube Axoneme Basal BodyNucleus Acrosome Sperm Testicle Endpiece Corona RadiataZona Pellucida Egg CytoplasmFirst Polar BodyOvum Mitochondria
STRUCTURE AND POSITION
● Cervix is usually cylindrical in shape and present in inferior part of Uterus, in junction with upper portion of Vagina. It can further be divided into three parts
Intravaginal part is present in upper end of Vagina. It protrudes into it from anterior part. It contain External Os, the external opening of the cervix.
Zone of Vaginal attachment is the part where it attaches to the walls of Vagina. Endocervical canal is present inside Cervix in this part, which is a passage between uterus and vagina.
Supravaginal part is present above the vagina and its attachment. It contains Internal Os in it, which is opening of the Endocervical canal inside Uterus.
● Cervix is covered with a mucous membrane inside vagina.
● In response to hormones, Cervix changes its shape and texture during Menstrual cycle of the female. During ovulation it becomes softer under the action of Estrogen. During rest of the Menstrual cycle it remains firm.
● Cervix is supplied by the Uterine and Vaginal Arteries through their cervical branches.
FUNCTION AND SIGNIFICANCE
- Cervix produces mucus which lubricates the Vagina. It also nourishes the Sperms and helps in their movement towards the Ovum.
- Cervix remains constricted usually and helps protecting Uterus from getting infected.
- During Menstrual Cycle it dilates to allow passage of menstrual fluid. And during Childbirth it dilates significantly to allow passage of the Baby. It changes the shape of the opening of Cervix to slit like and widened which is normally small and circular in a virgin female.
- A short Cervix may lead to preterm Labour (labour before baby is completely formed).
- Cervical Cancer is a major complication of Cervix in developing countries these days. However use of Pap smear technique (examination of cells collected from Cervix through Vagina) has reduced its incident greatly.