The deficiency of hemoglobin in the blood is termed as anemia. Since red blood cells carry hemoglobin in blood, lack of RBCs is also called anemia. It is a very common and serious condition that decreases the efficiency and proper functioning of body as body is not getting the normal amount of oxygen.

There are different types of anemia depending upon the cause. The major types of anemia include:

  • Hemolytic anemia.

  • Iron deficiency anemia.

  • Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia.

  • Aplastic anemia.

Anemia may be temporary in such conditions like pregnancy and it may be prolonged in case of malnutrition.


The main causes that result in anemia are:

  • Reduction in number of RBCs

  • Faulty production of RBCs

  • Excessive destruction of RBCs. As it occurs in hereditary spherocytosis.

  • Conditions requiring increased amounts of hemoglobin such as pregnancy. In such conditions, the demands outpace the production of haemoglobin.

  • Iron deficiency

  • Deficiency of vitamins like B12

  • Old age

  • Hypothyroidism

  • Chronic disorders, like lupus, diabetes etc.



Major signs and symptoms of anemia are listed below.

  • Fatigue

  • Heart palpitations

  • Pale appearance

  • Tiredness

  • Malaise


An anemic patient has a characteristic pale appearance. He/she appears to be exhausted and fatigued even at rest. CBC (complete blood cell count) is required to confirm the anemia. The test provides the hemoglobin’s level in patients’ blood and a low level than normal confirms anemia. The normal level of haemoglobin is about 12-18 mg/dl.


The treatment options available for anemia patients vary depending upon the cause of anemia. The underlying cause should be corrected in order to eradicate anemia completely. For example, if a person is deficient in vitamin B12, his diet should be supplemented with B12. Anemia has a good prognosis generally.

Iron is a crucial mineral when it comes to the formation of RBCs, so consuming a normal concentration of iron is critical as its deficiency can cause of anemia. Pregnant women are more prone to have anemia due to increased consumption of minerals, hence the levels of minerals required to fulfill their needs are also high. This anemia can also affect the fetus, therefore women should be provided with proper nutrition, especially high iron diet, during pregnancy.