Salivary Glands PancreasEsophagus LiverGallbladder Ascending Colon
Ileum Rectum AppendixPancreasStomach Transverse ColonDescending Colon Cecum Parotid Gland Sublingual Gland
Submandibular Gland Coronary LigamentCystic Duct DuodenumFalciform Ligament Pons
Gallbladder Hepatic Duct Pancreatic Duct Common Bile Duct Parotid Gland Sublingual GlandSubmandibular Gland
Gallbladder comprises of a hollow system lying beneath the Liver. Gallbladder of an adult is 8 cm in length and 4 cm in diameter. It has three functions i.e.
Neck of the Gallbladder connects to the Biliary Tree (Biliary Tract) through Cystic Ducts (short ducts joining Gallbladder to common bile duct), which then connects the Common Hepatic Duct (ducts draining bile from right and left functional lobe of liver) with Common Bile Duct (tube like structure in Gastrointestinal Tract). A mucosal fold known as Hartmann's Pouch is present at the Neck where the Gallstones get stuck. Gallbladder is situated at the lateral side of Rectus Abdominal Muscle. Fundus lies at the level similar to Transpyloric or Addison’s Plane (located halfway between jugular notch and upper part of Pubic Symphysis). The Body region of Gall Bladder is connected to the Liver.
Histology of Gallbladder has several layers which are as follows.
A thin sheet of cells near the inside of gallbladder named as Epithelium.
A layer of loose connective tissues named as Lamina Propria. This along with Epithelium forms Mucosa.
Muscularis, it is a layer of plain muscular tissue that to contract Gallbladder and squirting its bile into the bile duct.
Perimuscular Fibrous Tissue is another layer of connective tissue.
The outer layer covering the Gallbladder is formed from Peritoneum which is the lining of Abdominal Cavity. This layer is called Serosa.
Gallbladder unlike Intestinal Tract doesn’t have Muscularis Mucosae (a layer of smooth muscles found in most region of Gastrointestinal Tract).
Being the part of the Biliary System its main purpose is storing of Bile or Gall. It acts as a reservoir for Bile produced by Liver. Bile produced by the Liver flows to the Gallbladder through Bile ducts. In response to a hormone Cholecystokinin (a Peptide Hormone of Gastrointestinal Tract) released by the small intestine, Gallbladder releases the Bile. The function of this Bile is to break off large Fat molecules into smaller ones. After it has done its job, Bile is reabsorbed from the intestine and goes back to liver (Enterohepatic circulation). During the storage in Gallbladder the Bile becomes more potent and intensely effects on fats.
The most common problem of Gallbladder is Gallstones or also known as Rodriguez. Gallstones are formed when a little bit of Calcium coats either Cholesterol or Bilirubin and crystallization of Bile. It is a very serious condition as it causes no pain until the effect the Biliary System. Surgical removal of Gallbladder doesn’t effects the body. The surgical removal procedure of Gallbladder is called Cholecystectomy.