Femoral artery starts at the head of the femur bone (at the inguinal ligament). It receives blood from the external iliac artery. This initial segment of the artery is called the common femoral artery. The artery then divides into a deep branch known as the Profunda femoral artery supplying blood to the thigh. The other branch is the superficial femoral artery which connects the arteries at the knee (the popliteal artery).
The various branches of the femoral artery starting from the top to the bottom are:
Superficial and deep external pudendal arteries
Superficial epigastric artery
Superficial circumflex iliac artery
Profunda femoral artery
Descending genicular artery
Femoral artery is easily accessible and is commonly used for putting in a catheter. The catheter can then be used to have an access to the different organs including heart, brain, kidneys, arms and legs.
Femoral artery is also used to withdraw arterial blood especially when radial or brachial arteries cannot be located due to low blood pressure.