Dementia is a word of Latin origin meaning Madness. In this condition person suffers a loss of Cognitive Ability. It is usually expected beyond normal aging. It is the most common in Geriatric population (Old people), before age of 65. In that case it is called Early Onset Dementia.

Instead of being a disease it is a non specific syndrome affecting the areas of Memory, Attention, Language and Problem solving. Cognitive dysfunction for a short time is known as Delirium. With the passage of time the condition becomes severe and patient is unable in orientation of Time, of Place and of Person. Some common forms of Dementia are as follows.

  • Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Vascular Dementia

  • Frontotemporal Dementia

  • Semantic Dementia

  • Dementia with Lewy bodies


Symptoms of Dementia are as follows.

  • It decreases one’s ability to learn, reason and recall past experience.

  • It creates loss of thought patterns, feelings and activities.

  • People suffering with Dementia often exhibit additional Mental and Behavioral problems.

  • With time dementia worsens and patients neglect themselves and become incontinent i.e. no control over urination and Defecation.

  • One of Dementia’s common symptom is that patient deny any relatives. Social relations become very poor.

  • Dementia is accompanied by Psychosis and Aggression.

  • Patient can suffer from a Dementia called Mixed Dementia which is combination of Alzheimer’s disease and Multi-Infarct Dementia.


Causes for Dementia are as follows.

  • Fixed Cognitive Impairment:-

Brain injuries of various types may cause Fixed Cognitive Impairment. Some of these injuries are as follows.

  • Traumatic Brain Injury may damage white matter of Brain.

  • Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury caused due to decrease in brain’s blood supply or Oxygen.

  • Stroke including Ischemic Stroke, Extradural Hemorrhage affecting the Brain.

  • Infections including Meningitis and Encephalitis affecting the Brain.

  • Alcohol Usage causes Alcohol Dementia and Korsakoff’s psychosis.

  • Slowly Progressive:-

Slowly progressive Dementia worsens little by little over several Years due to Neurodegenerative Disease. This disease affects Nerves only that results in loss of function of these cells. The slowly progressive Dementias are normally found in elderly population and the common Dementias are as follows.

  • Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Vascular Dementia

  • Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

  • Huntington’s Disease

At all age the memory difficulties are due to following reasons.

  • Depressions

  • Vitamin Deficiencies; that includes Folate, Niacin or Vitamin B12

  • Chronic Infections; HIV, Lyme disease, Syphilis and Whipple’s Disease.

  • Rapidly Progressive:-

Creutzfeldt – Jakob disease commonly causes the Dementia that worsens in weeks to months. Prions are perhaps responsible for rapid degeneration of brain. Possible causes of Rapid Progressive Dementia are as follows.

  • Brain Infections including Whipple’s Disease, Viral Encephalitis.

  • Inflammation including Cerebral Vasculitis, Limbic Encephalitis.

  • Tumors such as Lymphoma or Glioma.

  • Drug Toxicity like Anticonvulsant Drugs

  • Metabolic Causes; Liver failure or Kidney Failure.


Some of the Dementia treatments along with Therapies and Medications are as follows.


  • Aromatherapy

  • Reminiscence Therapy

  • Validation Therapy

  • Cognitive Reframing

  • Music Therapy


There are no proper medications for the treatment or prevention of the Dementia. Medications are used to treat behavioral and Cognitive symptoms. Antipsychotic Drugs are only prescribed when non-drug therapies don’t work. Some of these medications are as follows.

  • Donepezil is given to patients of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease or Vascular Dementia.

  • Memantine is given to patients of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease or Vascular Dementia.