Bladder Seminal VesiclesProstate Gland Vas DeferensEpididymis Glans Penis
Corpus Cavernosum Urethral Opening ScrotumLabium MajoraLabium Minora UrethraClitoris Pubic bone Vagina Urinary Bladder
Cervix Uterus Ovary Rectum Ureter Fallopian Tube Axoneme Basal BodyNucleus Acrosome Sperm Testicle Endpiece Corona RadiataZona Pellucida Egg CytoplasmFirst Polar BodyOvum Mitochondria
● Endometrium is made up of single layer of columnar cells at surface lying over connective tissue whose thickness varies in response to hormones in females.
● Two layers of Endometrium are found in a fertile female.
Outer Functional layer is adjacent to uterine cavity.
Inner Basal layer is adjacent to Myometrium.
● Endometrium is a mucous membrane in nature. Its average thickness is 6.7 millimetre.
● Endometrium has uterine glands.
FUNCTION AND FEMALE MENSTRUAL CYCLE
In response to hormones of female during menstrual cycle Endometrium undergoes a number of structural changes which aid in its function.
- In response to estrogen in female menstrual cycle, Endometrium develops rich vascular supply of spiral vessels and proliferates.
- When ovulation occurs and progesterone is released it induces Endometrium to secretory phase. It helps implantation of a Blastocyst.
- If one or more Blastocyst gets implanted Endometrium forms a Placenta. Endometrium also functions as mucous membrane and helps keeping uterine cavity patent by inhibiting adhesion of myometrium to opposite side thus blocking uterine cavity.
- Endometrial Cancer is the most common type of cancer in females regarding their genital tract.
- If Endometrium gets damaged by instrumentation or devices, opposite sides of uterus can adhere and block uterine cavity, known as Asherman’s Syndrome.
- Endometrial tissue can grow outside the the uterus resulting in Endometriosis.
- In Adenomyosis endometrial tissue grows into the myometrium of uterus.